Caribbean Fever - Your ONLY destination to all things Caribbean and more
Usain Bolt loses one Olympic gold medal as Nesta Carter tests positive
Jamaica threatened with expulsion from 2016 Olympics over drug testing issues
Usain Bolt has been stripped of one of his nine Olympic medals because of the doping offence of his team-mate Nesta Carter.
Bolt is no longer owner of the hallowed ‘triple-triple’ of Olympic sprint titles and will have to hand back the 4x100m relay gold medal won at Beijing 2008 alongside Carter.
The Jamaican had realised this was a possibility after it emerged last summer that Carter had retrospectively failed a drugs test from the Beijing Games nine years ago.
Asafa Powell, Nesta Carter, Usain Bolt and Michael Frater (left to right) pose together after winning the 4x100m gold medal at the Beijing Olympics - but they have now been disqualified
Carter (second right, with Bolt) tested positive for methylhexaneaminet in sample re-analysis
Bolt and Carter have regularly raced together in relays - they are pictured together in 2015
2008: Olympic Games, Beijing
- 4x100m *NOW STRIPPED AND DISQUALIFIED*
2012: Olympic Games, London
2016: Olympic Games, Rio
His worst fears were confirmed when the International Olympic Committee on Wednesday announced it was to nullify the result of the Jamaican 4x100m team and reallocate the gold medal to Trinidad and Tobago.
Japan will now be promoted to silver and Brazil bronze but the Great Britain team, which was disqualified in the heats, will be unaffected.
Carter ran the first leg for Jamaica’s 4x100m team and Bolt ran the third on the way to a gold medal inside Beijing’s Bird Nest stadium where he announced himself as a sprinting superstar.
But it has now emerged that Carter had taken the banned stimulant methylhexanamine.
Medical opinion varies as to how potent a drug methylhexanamine is, with one prominent professor claiming it is only slightly more powerful than a cup of coffee.
Powell, Carter, Bolt and Frater celebrate on the track together after their triumph in 2008
Carter (far left) stands draped in the Jamaican flag at the Bird's Nest Stadium in Beijing
Nesta Carter was found to have Methylhexanamine, a banned stimulant, in his system when the samples he gave at Beijing 2008 were retested.
Methylhexanamine has been on the banned list since 2004 and was reclassified as a specialised substance in 2011.
It is also known as 'DMAA' and can be found in sports supplements. Until 1983, it was sold as a nasal decongestant in the United States.
The US Food & Drug administration say Methylhexanamine 'narrows blood vessels and arteries, which can elevate blood pressure, and may lead to cardiovascular problems such as shortness of breath, arrhythmias, tightening in the chest, and heart attack, as well as seizures and other neurological and psychological conditions.'
The useful effects mean it helps as a body building aid and with weight loss.
While Bolt is faultless in this unfortunate situation, a victim of his team-mate’s cheating, Carter’s use of performance enhancing drugs again casts a shadow over Jamaica’s sprint medal factory.
In 2013 Veronica Campbell-Brown, Asafa Powell and Sherone Simpson all tested positive leading to suspicions as to how this tiny island became so dominant on the world stage.
There was much fanfare last summer when Bolt became the first person in history to clinch the ‘triple-triple,’ completing the task with victory in the relay inside Rio’s Joao Havelange stadium.
Having one of his medals taken from him, through no fault of his own, could mean the 30-year-old is even more fired up to win gold in the 100m at the London World Championships this summer, which will be his final major competitive event.
Bolt is pictured at the GQ Men of the Year party in Los Angeles, California last month
Carter (left) testified by video conference at an IOC disciplinary hearing in October
AUGUST 22, 2008: Usain Bolt helps Jamaica's 4x100m relay team to gold, setting a world record time of 37.10 seconds.
Jamaica's team also consists of Michael Frater, Asafa Powell and Nesta Carter. Bolt runs the third leg and wins his third gold medal of the 2008 games, adding to 100m and 200m glory.
AUGUST 11, 2012: Jamaica defend their 4x100m gold, smashing the world record with a time of 36.84 seconds.
The team consists of Carter, Frater, Yohan Blake and Bolt. For Bolt, it means he has successfully defended all three of his gold medals in Beijing.
MAY 2016: The International Olympic Committee retest 454 frozen blood and urine samples from Beijing 2008.
JUNE 2016: It is announced Carter's A sample from Beijing has produced an Adverse Analytical Finding (AAF) with banned stimulant Methylhexanamine.
AUGUST 19, 2016: Bolt and Jamaica record victory in the 4x100m for the third time in a row.
This time, the Jamaica team consists of Powell, Blake, Nickel Ashmeade and Bolt.
Bolt, at his last Olympics, also defended his 100m and 200m titles, making him a 'triple-triple' Olympic gold medallist.
JANUARY 25, 2017: The IOC announce Jamaica have been disqualified from the 2008 4x100m final due to Carter's positive test for the prohibited substance methylhexanamine.
Frater, Powell, Carter and Bolt all lose their gold medals from that race.
The confirmation of Carter’s positive doping tests means Bolt, whose world record is 9.58sec, stands alone as the only man to have run 9.79sec and not be tainted by a drugs ban.
The other five - Tyson Gay (9.69sec), Yohan Blake (9.69sec), Asafa Powell (9.72sec) and Justin Gatlin (9.74sec) – have all been done for doping violations.
At London 2012 Carter was in the 4x100m team - this time anchored by Bolt - which won gold in a world record time of 36.84sec although that medal is not thought to be under threat.
I. The Athlete, Nesta CARTER:
i. is found to have committed an anti-doping rule violation pursuant to the IOC Anti-Doping Rules applicable to the Games of the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing in 2008,
ii. is disqualified from the men's 4x100m relay event in which he participated upon the occasion of the Olympic Games Beijing 2008,
iii. has the medal, the medallist pin and the diploma obtained in the men's 4x100m relay event withdrawn and is ordered to return same.
II. The Jamaican team is disqualified from the men's 4x100m relay event. The corresponding medals, medallist pins and diplomas are withdrawn and shall be returned.
III. The IAAF is requested to modify the results of the above-mentioned event accordingly and to consider any further action within its own competence.
IV. The Jamaica Olympic Association shall ensure full implementation of this decision.
V. The Jamaica Olympic Association shall notably secure the return to the IOC, as soon as possible, of the medals, the medallist pins and the diplomas awarded in connection with the men's 4x100m relay event to the Athlete and his teammates.
VI. This decision enters into force immediately.
Nesta Carter was told of the adverse finding in May - before the Rio Olympics
Usain Bolt will have to hand back one of his nine Olympic gold medals after Jamaican team-mate Nesta Carter tested positive for a banned substance.
Carter was part of the Jamaican quartet that won the 4x100m in Beijing in 2008.
His was one of 454 selected doping samples retested by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) last year, and has been found to contain the banned stimulant methylhexaneamine.
Bolt, 30, completed an unprecedented 'triple triple' in Rio last summer.
He won gold in the 100m, 200m and 4x100m relay to add to his successes in the same events in 2008 and 2012.
Carter, 31, was also part of the squad that won the event in London five years ago and helped Jamaica win at the World Championships in 2011, 2013 and 2015.
He ran the first leg for Jamaica's 4x100m relay team in Beijing, which also included Michael Frater, Asafa Powell and Bolt.
The team won in a then world record of 37.10 seconds, ahead of Trinidad and Tobago and Japan, who will now have their medals upgraded. Brazil will receive bronze.
Russia's Tatiana Lebedeva has also been stripped of her Beijing long jump silver after dehydrochlormethyltestosterone was found in one of her samples.
Carter was tested on the evening of the Beijing final in 2008 but that was found at the time to contain no "adverse analytical finding".
More than 4,500 tests were carried out at those Games, but just nine athletes were caught cheating.
An anomaly was discovered in Carter's submission following the IOC's decision to retest 454 samples from Beijing using the latest scientific analysis methods.
Carter and the Jamaican National Olympic Committee were told of the adverse finding in May - before the Rio Games - and told his B sample would be tested.
It was reported by Reuters in June that Carter's A sample had been found to contain methylhexanamine, which has been on the World Anti-Doping Agency (Wada) prohibited list since 2004.
It was reclassified in 2011 as a "specified substance", meaning one that is more susceptible to a "credible, non-doping explanation".
Sold as a nasal decongestant in the United States until 1983, methylhexanamine has been used more recently as an ingredient in dietary supplements.
Britain's two-time Olympic silver medallist Roger Black on BBC Radio 5 live
It takes the shine off Bolt's achievement. Eight doesn't have the same ring - 'double treble, plus two'.
It will be really frustrating for him. You can only account for yourself, you cannot account for your team-mates.
We know it has nothing to do with Usain Bolt - it will not damage his reputation - but it will affect it, take shine off it and he won't be a happy man.
When I hear stories like this, a part of me does celebrate. If athletes think they have got away with, then with retrospective testing they can never sleep peacefully.
It has to be the strongest deterrent the sport now has. Even when athletes retire they can still have their medals taken away. That is a really good deterrent.
The World Anti-Doping Agency, WADA has issued a stern warning to one of track and field’s most prominent nations as Jamaica could face expulsion from the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio De Janeiro if the local government fails to address inadequacies in its drug testing program.
British newspaper, the Telegraph reported Wednesday evening that WADA’s general director, David Howman has urged Jamaica to look into is drug testing policy after explosive accusations by former Jamaica Anti-Doping Commission (JADCO) head, Anne Shirley that the island has not done enough to prevent drug use amongst its athletes.
In an article for Sports Illustrated, Shirley, who quit as JADCO president in February, accused Jamaican politicians and administrators of ignoring her constant warnings regarding the issue while claiming recent positive tests returned by Asafa Powell, Sherone Simpson and others were a ‘disaster’ waiting to happen. Additionally, she revealed that JADCO only did one out-of-competition drug test in five months prior to last year’s Olympics in London, England.
Following these claims, Howman has threatened that should these issues not be resolved, WADA could deem JADCO non-compliant with its code of conduct, which could affect Jamaica’s participation in the 2016 summer games as well as other, upcoming track and field events.
“Our normal approach if we have issues falling into the category of either complaint or concern is to try to work with the particular signatory – in this case the Nada [national anti-doping agency] – and remedy it,” Howman said, according to the Telegraph. “If nothing happens, we can ask our board to declare any of the signatories non-compliant and that has implications as to whether teams from the country would be admitted into various events.”
He continued, “It’s serious. And I think that if responsible people in Jamaica are looking at it then they will address it. I would be disappointed if they didn’t. But, certainly, if there’s a lack of response then it’s something that we at WADA would want to take up with the Jamaican government.”
“We’ve worked closely with Jamaica for a number of years. I was down there a few years ago to try to look after issues we felt needed to be addressed and they were then addressed by the government of the day.”
“We knew that there was a spell in Jamaica where they didn’t have a CEO and there was a spell when they were not conducting testing and we didn’t know the reason for that. But that was certainly something that we became aware of.”
Howman also added that he has a very positive relationship with Jamaica’s prime minister and former sports minister, Portia Simpson-Miller and believes they can work towards a solution that will help strengthen the country’ drug policies and testing regiments.
The Jamaican track team is coming off a nine-medal haul at the recently concluded IAAF World Championships in Moscow, Russia. Double 100m Olympic champions, Usain Bolt and Shelly-Ann Fraser Pryce each walked away with three gold medals while the 4 by 400m team won silver, Warren Weir won silver in the 200m and Nesta Carter won bronze in the 100m.